Inappropriate relationships : the unconventional, the disapproved & the forbidden

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Clinical Psychology Forum, 78, The prevalence of sexual contact between British clinical psychologists and their patients. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 5, - A survey of "unacceptable behaviour" among supervisors and trainees in the West Midlands. Who Cares? The views of sexual offenders about the treatment they receive. Sexual Abuse, 15, 4, British Journal of Forensic Practice, 6, 3, Sexual harassment.

The Psychologist, 5, 7, In Beech, A. Chichester: Wiley. Forensic Update, , Goodman, W. Locus of control in offenders and alleged offenders with learning disabilities. British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 35, Gray, R. Boundary violation in therapeutic work: effects, risk indicators and organisational issues. Baim, C. Thomas-Peter, B. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry, 11, 1, Eds Socioeconomic Factors. There have also been many studies about the individual traits and characteristics of blacks and whites who intermarry, examining similarities or differences in education, employment, involvement in social activities, recreation, residential area, and socioeconomic status.

Jennifer Becker - Google Scholar Citations

One study done in sought to examine factors that might influence interracial marriage such as immigration, age, college attendance, socioeconomic status, region and military service Heaton and Jacobson In a study, Richard Lewis and colleagues looked at the role that nonracial and racial factors play in spouse selection among those who are interracially married. Based on surveys of respondents, they concluded that nonracial factors are more important in the spouse selection process than racial factors.

Interracial couples come together for varied reasons, just as same-race couples do, and race or racial factors do not necessarily play a primary role in the couples coming together. In a race-conscious society such as America, even when whites and blacks are similar in terms of education, employment, recreation, socioeconomic status, and other factors, the perceived and ascribed racial differences remain a deterrent to intermarriage. Furthermore, because most blacks and whites do not inhabit the same areas, acquire similar education and employment levels, and are involved in different social activities, the focus of these studies should be on the structural constraints that prevent or discourage black-white proximity and intermarriage—such as segregation in residential areas and segregation and racial discrimination in schools, the workplace, and other institutions— rather than focusing on those individuals who do engage in interracial relationships.

Using this type of theory to understand interracial relationships emphasizes that these couples come together primarily because black men who have a higher socioeconomic status can marry a white woman of lower socioeconomic status, and thereby exchange his class standing for her socially defined superior racial status. Recent studies have also used the hypergamy argument to explain intermarriage.

These studies, however, have been faulted because they do not address cultural factors when considering the low rates of intermarriage for black women. These factors include the disturbing history of sexual relations between black women and white men; the lack of power of black women in society relative to whites, and even to black men; the white standard of beauty that devalues black women; and the opposition to intermarriage reported by black women in attitudinal studies. Studies that address the issue of interracial families or couples from a personal perspective offer insight into the difficulties that interracial couples and families can still face.

Other works have documented the contemporary experiences of interracial couples and changing societal attitudes and behaviors, which reveal that while interracial couples are more acceptable in the twenty-first century, significant opposition remains.

Black-White Intermarriage

Nearly forty years after the ban on interracial marriages was considered unconstitutional, interracial marriages have increased. The U. Census found there were , interracial marriages in the United States, making up about.


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Marriages between black men and white women are still far more common than those between white men and black women, of which there were about 78, in These numbers are reflective of the remaining racial ideologies that inform societal. Census documents all interracial couples and marriages, including marriages between Asian, Hispanic, Native American, Pacific Islander, and multiracial individuals.

Socially constructed perceptions of interracial dating also include white-Hispanic, and white-Asian marriages as interracial couples. Census documented , white-Asian marriages. Marriage between a white person and a person of Hispanic origin are difficult to document. The socially constructed nature of racial categories in America leaves the definition of race and interracial couples ambiguous.

People of Hispanic origin, however, could identify themselves as belonging to one or more of these racial categories as well as indicating their Hispanic origin, which is classified as an ethnic category, not a racial one, by the Census Bureau. Yet couples with one Hispanic partner and one non-Hispanic partner are often thought of as interracial, reinforcing the idea that any white-nonwhite couple is an interracial couple.

Inappropriate Relationships : the Unconventional, the Disapproved, and the Forbidden

Though Hispanic is not a race, it is often socially considered a racial group. Hispanic-white intermarriage is the highest amount of all intergroup marriage, due to the ambiguity of race and the definitions of race. Interracial relationships have long been viewed as a sign of improving race relations and assimilation, yet these unions have also been met with opposition from whites and other racial groups.


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While the number of interracial couples continues to rise, this does not signify a complete transformation of societal ideologies and ideas. While significant changes have occurred in the realm of race relations, U.

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Most citizens live and socialize with others of the same race, even though there are no longer such legal barriers as laws against intermarriage. The relatively low numbers of interracial couples in the United States attests to the continual reproduction and construction of dominant racial ideologies.

While the ability of two individuals of different races to love each other cannot change the social structure of race, the societal responses to these relationships e. Issues concerning the children of interracial marriages, the racism the couple will encounter from the larger society, the disapproval of the family, and traditional ideas of race mixing are all used to challenge the formation of interracial relationships.

Becker, Howard S. Outsiders: Studies in the Sociology of Deviance. New York : Free Press. Bennett, Lerone, Jr. Chicago: Johnson Publishing Co. Collins, Patricia Hill. Black Feminist Thought. New York : Routledge. Crester, Gary A. Davis, F. Who is Black? Ferber, Abby. Frankenberg, Ruth. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Goffman, Erving. Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity.

Signs of an inappropriate teacher-student relationship

Goodwin, Robin, and Duncan Cramer, eds. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Heaton, Tim B. Leaver, Interracial Relationships. Adams, J. Yip, Same-Sex Relationships. Garrett, Inappropriate Therapist-Patient "Relationships. Spitzberg, W. Cupach, The Inappropriateness of Relational Intrusion. Howitt, Social Exclusion--Pedophile Style.


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