Globalization and Environmental Challenges: Reconceptualizing Security in the 21st Century

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China and the new international security agenda. China and the new international security agenda Alan Hunter.

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Centre for Trust, Peace and Social Relations. Original language English Title of host publication Globalization and environmental challenges: reconceptualising security in the 21st century Editors H. Brauch, U. Oswald Spring, C. Mesjasz, J. Grin, P. Dunay, N. Behera, B. Chourou, P. Kameri-Mbot, P. Bibliographical note The full-text of this book is not available from this repository. Keywords Globalisation environmental security. Liotta Eds. Globalization and environmental challenges: reconceptualising security in the 21st century.

Brauch; U. Huntingtons simplification of a new Islamic-Confucian threat used cultural notions to legitimate military postures to stabilize the Western dominance and US leadership. Huntington provoked many critical replies by scholars from different regions, cultures and religions. Instead of reducing culture to an object for the legitimization of the military power of one country, the authors in part III have been asked to review the thinking on security in their own culture or religion as it has evolved over centuries and has and may still influence implicitly the thinking and action of policymakers in their region.

Eight chapters were written by authors representing different cultures and religions: Eun-Jeung Lee Korea, chap. The authors were invited to discuss these questions: a Which security concepts have been used in the respective philosophy, ethics, and religion? The goal of this part is to sensitize the readers not to perceive the world only through the narrow conceptual lenses prevailing primarily in the Western or North Atlantic debates on security concepts and policies. Rather, the cultural, philosophical and religious diversity that influence the thinking on and related policies may sensitize policymakers.

During the Cold War the narrow national security concept has prevailed table 1. Since two parallel debates have taken place among analysts of globalization in OECD countries focusing on processes of de-territorialization and de-borderization as well as proponents of new spatial approaches to internatio-.

There was no significant controversy between both schools. Both approaches may contribute to an understanding of the co-existence of pre-modern, modern and post-modern thinking on sovereignty and its relationship to security. The major dividing line between both perspectives, often pursued in the tradition of realism or pragmatism, is the role of space in international affairs see chap. In the Westphalian system sovereign states may be defined in terms of a territory, b people, and c government system of rule.

Thus, the territorial category of space has been a constituent of modern international politics. No state exits without a clearly defined territory. Spatiality is the term used to describe the dynamic and interdependent relationship between a societys construction of space on society Soja This concept applies not only to the social level, but also to the individual, for it draws attention to the fact that this relationship takes place through individual human actions, and also constrains and enables these actions Giddens During the s and s, spatial science was widely used in geography and it attracted practitioners interested in spatial order and in related policies Schmidt However, the micro level analyses in human geography are of no relevance for international relations where the concept of territoriality is often used as: a strategy which uses bounded spaces in the exercise of power and influence.

Most social scientists focus on the efficiency of territoriality as a strategy, in a large variety of circumstances, involving the exercise of power, influence and domination. The efficiency of territoriality is exemplified by the large number of containers into which the earths surface is divided. By far the best example of its benefits to those wishing to exercise power is the state, which is necessarily a territorial body. Within its territory, the state apparatus assumes sovereign power: all residents are required to obey the laws of the land in order for the state to undertake its central roles within society; boundaries are policed to control people and things entering and leaving.

Some argue that territoriality is a necessary strategy for the modern state, which could not operate successfully without it Johnston ; Mann This very notion of the territoriality of the state has been challenged by international relations specialists. Herz argued that the territorial state could easily be penetrated by intercontinental missiles armed with nuclear weapons. In the s, some globalists announced the death of the state as the key actor of international politics, and during the recent debate some analysts of globalization proclaimed the end of. For the deborderized territories a new form of raison dtat may be needed.

The authors of part IV have been invited to address the following questions: a Has the debate on security been influenced by the two schools focusing on globalization and geopolitics as well as by pre-modern, modern, and postmodern thinking on space? The authors of the twelve chapters address two competing approaches of globalization vs. Mustafa Aydin and Sinem Acikmese chap. Bharat Karnad chap. Gunhild Hoogensen chap. Tickner and Ann C. Mason chap. The security concept is used in many scientific disciplines and programmes. In this part Jean Marc Coicaud chap. Mansoob Murshed chap.

The authors were invited to discuss these questions: a Did a reconceptualization of security occur in these scientific disciplines and programmes?

Globalization and Environmental Challenges Reconceptualizing Security in the 21st Century Hexagon Se

Laura Shepherd and Jutta Weldes chap. Barry Buzan, Ole Wver and Jaap de Wilde distinguished among five sectors or dimensions of security of which they analyse in this book the military Buzan, chap. They were invited to reflect on these questions: a To which extent have new theoretical paradigms, approaches, and concepts in different parts of the world influenced the reconceptualization of security dimensions? Introduction: Globalization and Environmental Challenges: Reconceptualizing Security b To which extent have different worldviews, cognitive lenses, and mindsets framed the securitization of the five key sectors or dimensions of security?

With the end of the Cold War, the bipolar system that relied primarily on systems of collective self-defence Art. In a brief interlude from , the systems of global and regional collective security were on the rise, and even NATO, the only remaining system of collective self-defence, was ready to act under a mandate of the CSCE, or since of the OSCE.

Globalization and Environmental Challenges: Reconceptualizing Security in the 21st Century

However, with the failure of the UN and OSCE to cope with the conflicts in the post Yugoslav space, since NATOs relevance grew again, and with its gradual enlargement from 16 to 27 countries, NATO has again become the major security institution for hard security issues while the role of the UN system and of its regional collective security organizations expanded also into the soft human security areas.

Four chapters review the complex reconceptualization of security by and within the European Union, from the perspective of the chair of the EUs Military Committee Chap. Moschini who presents its comprehensive security concept, while Stefan Hintermeier chap.

The security and development nexus is introduced by Peter Uvin chap. Katseli chap. The authors of part VII were asked to consider these questions: a Which concepts of security have been used by the respective international organizations in their charter and basic policy documents? To which extent has the understanding of security changed in the declaratory as well as in the operational policy of this security institution? To which extent was the global turn of instrumental for a reconceptualization of security by the UN, its independent global and regional organizations and programmes?

And to which extent did the security institutions adopt the concepts of environmental and human security in their policy declarations and in their operative policy activities? A major reconceptualization of security has been triggered by the fundamental global contextual change that occurred with the end of the Cold War. The narrow Hobbesian view of security threats posed by the military capabilities and intentions of the other military alliance has been overcome and replaced by a widening, deepening and sectorialization of the regional thinking on security.

The security concepts offer a framework for the analysis of hard security threats and manifold political, economic, environmental security challenges, vulnerabilities and risks. The redefinition of security interests by security institutions as influenced by the conceptual lenses that influence the subjective security perception. The regional security in Europe in the 21st century is analyzed by Sven Biscop Belgium, chap. Three regional security perspectives for three sub-regions in Asia are offered by Navnita Chadha Behera India, chap.

Kevin P. Clements and Wendy L. Foley Australia, New Zealand, chap. Miskel USA offer thoughts for an ethical framework for security. The authors of part VIII were invited to consider these questions:. Which role has the rethinking of security in the new millennium played in regional debates on peace and security in Europe, in the Neighbourhood, Near Abroad, and Greater or Wider Middle East?

This part will carry the discussion on security concepts into the future from a theoretical perspective on prediction in security theory and policy by Czesaw Mesjasz chap. McBean chap. Heikki Patomki chap.

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Based on the analysis of the trends in global thinking the authors discuss the policy relevance of security concepts for the structuring of the security debate and for policy-making both in national governments and in international organizations. As indicated above 1. Such an ambitious effort may transcend the narrow professional or institutional horizon of some reviewers who often expect that such a project should be developed within the mainstream methodological approaches of international relations. The editors pursue three goals: a to contribute to problem awareness for the different security concepts in North and South, on hard and soft security issues, on non-military, primarily environmental challenges and environmental security problems; b to stimulate.

Introduction: Globalization and Environmental Challenges: Reconceptualizing Security and encourage interdisciplinary scientific research and political efforts to resolve, prevent, and avoid that environmental factors may contribute to violent conflicts both scientific and political agenda-setting ; and c to contribute to a better understanding of the complex interactions between natural processes, nature and human-induced regional environmental changes learning.

While power has once been defined by Karl Deutsch , as not having to learn, during the 20th century the resistance to any anticipatory learning by those who control the resources over outcomes has been significant. In history, it often required severe foreign policy and domestic crises e.

Several scientists E. Wilson have described the 21st century as the century of the environment.

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For the new century, Edward O. Wilson a has referred to a growing consilience, i. Ted Munn , in his preface to the Encyclopedia of Global Environmental Change, argued based on Wilson: that this interlocking amongst the natural sciences will in the 21st century also touch the borders of the social sciences and humanities.

In the environmental context, environmental scientists in diverse specialties, including human ecology, are more precisely defining the area in which that species arose, and those parts that must be sustained for human survival Wilson Anticipatory learning must acknowledge this need for a growing consilience that causal explanations across disciplines may contribute to new understanding and knowledge that will be needed to cope with the challenges of the international risk society Beck , , All chapters in this volume have been peer reviewed by at least two anonymous reviewers, and subsequently all chapters in this volume have been revised by the authors.

This book is not addressed only to the political science, international relations, strategic studies, peace research, development, and environmental studies community in the OECD world.

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Its scope is broader and more ambitious. It intends to broaden the scope and to sensitize the reader to the thinking in different disciplines, cultures, and global regions, especially on nature and humankind. The editors have worked hard that these three related books on reconceptualizing security will be of relevance for scholars, educators and students and the more generally academically trained audience in many scientific disciplines, such as: political science international relations, security studies, environmental studies, peace research, conflict and war studies ; sociology security conceptualization and risk society ; economics globalization and security ; philosophy, theology, comparative religion and culture security conceptualization ; international law security conceptualization , geosciences global environmental change, climate change, desertification, water , geography global environmental change, population, urbanization, food ; military science military academies.

The thinking on security and on the specific security policies of countries, alliances, and international organizations are also a special focus for educators at all levels and media specialists. Read Free For 30 Days. Flag for inappropriate content. For Later. Related titles.

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Security: The State (of) Being Free From Danger?

Oktober 13 Hans Gnter Brauch 28 Table 1. Value at risk security of what? National Security [political, military dimension] The state Sovereignty, territorial integrity Other states, guerilla, terrorism substate actors Societal security [dimension] Nations, societal groups National unity, identity States Nations, migrants, alien cultures Human security Individuals, humankind Survival, quality of life State, globalization, GEC, nature, terrorism Environmental security [dimension] Ecosystem Sustainability Humankind Gender security Gender relations, indigenous people, minorities, children, elders Equality, equity, identity, solidarity, social representations Patriarchy, totalitarian institutions governments, religions, elites, culture , intolerance, violence military concept, and an extended security concept with economic, societal, and environmental dimensions.

Whether a threat, challenge, vulnerability, and risk Brauch a, becomes an objective security danger or a subjective security concern also depends on the political context. Oktober 13 Hans Gnter Brauch 30 persistent change in the history of short events histoire des vnements and long structures Braudels , , histoire de la longue dure.

Oktober 13 Introduction: Globalization and Environmental Challenges: Reconceptualizing Security was instrumental, triggered or contributed to this conceptual innovation and diversity in the global security discourse since or to which extent other events or regional or national structural changes have initiated a conceptual rethinking.

With the French Revolution and its intellectual and political conse- 31 quences the thinking on Rechtssicherheit legal predictability guaranteed by a state based on laws gradually evolved. Oktober 13 Hans Gnter Brauch 32 qualified.

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During the s, the conceptual thinking on alternative se- They claimed: The subject may be international relations, but the readings are overwhelmingly American. Oktober 13 Introduction: Globalization and Environmental Challenges: Reconceptualizing Security of mass destruction and to the war on terror has also failed, and many scholars share the scepticism.

In the US and Canada, and in Switzerland and Norway the concept of environmental security as 33 security concerns emerged during the s and s. Oktober 13 Hans Gnter Brauch 34 a history of structures history of longue dure and of conjunctural cycles in the accounts on social, societal, and economic history; a history of ideas Ideengeschichte and concepts Begriffsgeschichte.

Oktober 13 Introduction: Globalization and Environmental Challenges: Reconceptualizing Security storical structure and the sciences. Secretary-General Prez de Cullar noted that concepts of security are the different bases on which States and the international community as a whole rely for their security and he observed that the 4 3 See e. Includes delivery to Finland. Out of stock Notify me when available Submit. Check for new and used marketplace copies. Put quite simply, the twin impacts of globalization and environmental degradation pose new security dangers and concerns.

In this new work on global security thinking, 91 authors from five continents and many disciplines, from science and practice, assess the worldwide reassessment of the meaning of security triggered by the end of the Cold War and globalization, as well as the multifarious impacts of global environmental change in the early 21st century. Skip Navigation and go to main content Bestsellers Books. Home Books Politics Globalization. Print this page.